Pendekatan Sosiologi Feminis dalam Kjian Sastra

Dipa Nugraha

Abstract


Pendekatan sosiologi sastra adalah salah satu pendekatan yang sering dipakai di dalam kajian sastra di Indonesia sejak Sapardi Djoko Damono memperkenalkannya di dunia kritik sastra Indonesia pada tahun 1978. Akan tetapi, di dalam praktik penerapan pendekatan sosiologi sastra di Indonesia terkini ada anggapan bahwa sosiologi sastra tidak cocok dengan kritik sastra feminis meski sudah jamak diketahui bahwa feminisme tidak bisa lepas dari konstruk sosial dan praktik patriarki di dalam masyarakat. Artikel ini hendak menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan sosiologi sastra dalam bentuk sosiologi feminis dengan kritik sastra feminis tidak saling kontradiktif. Artikel ini adalah artikel ulasan pustaka sistematik. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan metode pembacaan cermat ekstensif terhadap literatur yang bertautan dengan sosiologi sastra, sosiologi feminis, dan kritik sastra feminis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat dinyatakan bahwa pendekatan sosiologi feminis dalam kajian sastra setidaknya dapat diterapkan melalui agenda pembacaan, dengan pembacaan anakronistik, atas kerja pemasaran dan pengusungan, atas situasi aktivitas pembaca, dan berdasarkan situasi dan kesadaran pengarang. Praktik-praktik ini sejatinya praktik yang dilakukan di dalam kritik sastra feminis. Artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan sosiologi dalam rupa sosiologi feminis dengan kritik sastra feminis pada dasarnya tidak saling bertentangan sebab keduanya berasal dari feminisme.

Sociology of literature is widely used in Indonesian literary criticism since its introduction in 1978 by Sapardi Djoko Damono. However, there is a doubt in recent Indonesian literary criticism to accept feminist literary criticism in some way as part of sociology of literature whilst it is already that feminism deals with social construct and patriarchy practice in society. This article aims to show that sociology of literature in the form of feminist sociology and feminist literary criticism are not contradictory as one claims. This is a systematic literature review. The method of collecting data is extensive close reading on sociology of literature, feminist sociology, and feminist literary criticism. Based on the extensive close reading, there are at least five models can be used in feminist sociologal approach: through reading agenda, using anachronistic reading, on the marketing strategy and endorsement, on the situation of the readers’ activity, and based on writer’s situation and consciousness. This article shows that feminist sociological approach in literature and feminist literary criticism are not in conflict as the two come from feminism.

 


Keywords


sociology of literature; feminist sociology; feminist literary criticism; feminist sociological approach

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/und.v16i2.2807

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